VITAMINS MINERALS ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS NON ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS PHYTO NUTRITENTS ESSENTIAL FATTY ACIDS
Vitamins

Vitamin A

Vitamin A is a fat-soluble vitamin that is naturally present in many foods. Vitamin A is important for normal vision, the immune system, and reproduction. Vitamin A also helps the heart, lungs, kidneys, and other organs work properly.

There are two different types of vitamin A. The first type, preformed vitamin A, is found in meat, poultry, fish, and dairy products. The second type, provitamin A, is found in fruits, vegetables, and other plant-based products. The most common type of provitamin A in foods and dietary supplements is beta-carotene.

RDA  900 ug men 700 ug women    One serving of Spirulina 92,000 iu

https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/VitaminA-Consumer/

Vitamin E

Vitamin E is a nutrient that's important to vision, reproduction, and the health of your blood, brain and skin.

Vitamin E also has antioxidant properties. Antioxidants are substances that might protect your cells against the effects of free radicals — molecules produced when your body breaks down food or is exposed to tobacco smoke and radiation. Free radicals might play a role in heart disease, cancer and other diseases. If you take vitamin E for its antioxidant properties, keep in mind that the supplement might not offer the same benefits as naturally occurring antioxidants in food.

Foods rich in vitamin E include canola oil, olive oil, margarine, almonds and peanuts. You can also get vitamin E from meats, dairy, leafy greens and fortified cereals. Vitamin E is also available as an oral supplement in capsules or drops.

Vitamin E deficiency can cause nerve pain (neuropathy).The recommended daily amount of vitamin E for adults is 15 milligrams a day.

RDA 22  iu     One serving of Spirulina 4 iu

https://www.mayoclinic.org/drugs-supplements-vitamin-e/art-20364144

Vitamin K

Vitamin K refers to a group of fat-soluble vitamins that play a role in blood clotting, bone metabolism, and regulating blood calcium levels.

The body needs vitamin K to produce prothrombin, a protein and clotting factor that is important in blood clotting and bone metabolism. People who use blood-thinning medications, such as warfarin, or Coumadin, should not start consuming additional vitamin K without first asking a doctor.

RDA 182 mcg Men, 164 mcg Women         One serving of Spirulina 800 mcg

https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/219867.php

Vitamin B1

Thiamine is an essential nutrient that all tissues of the body need to function properly. Thiamine was the first B vitamin that scientists discovered. This is why its name carries the number 1. Like the other B vitamins, thiamine is water-soluble and helps the body turn food into energy.

You can find it in:
  • foods
  • individual supplements
  • multivitamins
The body needs thiamine to make adenosine triphosphate (ATP). This is a molecule that transports energy within cells.

RDA 1.1 mg   One serving of Spirulina 1.4 mg

https://www.healthline.com/health/vitamin-watch-b1-thiamine

Vitamin B2

Vitamin B2, also known as riboflavin, is one of the eight B-complex vitamins. Like other B vitamins, it plays a role in energy production in the body, but also has many other important uses. Vitamin B2 is a water-soluble vitamin that is flushed out of the body daily, so it must be restored each day. The best way to get this vitamin is by eating foods that are rich in riboflavin. Riboflavin is found in eggs, nuts, dairy products, meats, broccoli, brewer's yeast, Brussel sprouts, wheat germ, wild rice, mushrooms, soybeans, green leafy vegetables and whole grain and enriched cereals and bread.

Riboflavin is a vitamin that is needed for growth and overall good health. It helps the body break down carbohydrates, proteins and fats to produce energy, and it allows oxygen to be used by the body.

“Riboflavin is also used for the development and function of the skin, lining of the digestive tract, blood cells and other vital organs,” Dr. Sherry Ross, women’s

Vitamin B2 is also important for eye health. According to the University of Michigan, this vitamin is needed to protect glutathione, which is an important antioxidant in the eye. The U.S. National Library of Medicine (NLM) reports that eating a diet rich in riboflavin can lower the risk of developing cataracts. Taking supplements containing riboflavin and niacin may also be helpful in preventing cataracts.

Levels of certain vitamins, chemicals and minerals in the bloodstream seem to be dependent on healthy levels of B2, as well. For example, riboflavin changes vitamin B6 and folate (vitamin B9) into forms that the body can use. According to the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, riboflavin is important to how the body processes iron. Without it, research shows that the body is more likely to develop anemia.  Taking riboflavin can also reduce homocysteine levels in the blood by 26 to 40 percent, according to the NLM.

B2 may be important to pregnancy health, as well. According to a study by the University Women's Hospital, Heidelberg, Germany, riboflavin deficiency may be a factor in causing preeclampsia, a condition that causes high blood pressure in late pregnancy.

Those suffering from migraines may find that taking doses of B2 may help. A study by the department of neurology of Humboldt University of Berlin found that those taking high doses of riboflavin had significantly fewer migraines.

RDA 1.3 mg Men, 1.1 mg Women   One serving of Spirulina 1.7 mg

https://www.livescience.com/51966-vitamin-b2-riboflavin.html

Vitamin B5 Pantothenic Acid

Vitamin B5, also called pantothenic acid and pantothenate, is vital to living a healthy life. Like all B complex vitamins, B5 helps the body convert food into energy. B5 is naturally found in many food sources. "Pantothenic," in fact, means "from everywhere," because the vitamin is available in so many food sources.

Vitamin B5 provides a multitude of benefits to the human body. It is found in living cells as a coenzyme A (CoA), which is vital to numerous chemical reactions, according to a study published in the journal Vitamins and Hormones.

"Pantothenic acid is typically used in combination with other B vitamins in the form of a vitamin B complex formulation," said Dr. Sherry Ross, OB/GYN and Women's Health Expert at Providence Saint John's Health Center in Santa Monica, California. The other vitamins in the vitamin B complex are vitamin B1 (thiamine), vitamin B2 (riboflavin), vitamin B3 (niacin), vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid), vitamin B6 (pyridoxine), vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin), and folic acid, she added.

B vitamins turn carbohydrates into glucose, which is the fuel that produces energy. According to the University of Maryland Medical Center, B vitamins also help the body use fat and protein and are also important for maintaining a healthy nervous system, eyes, skin, hair and liver.

Specifically, B5 helps to:
  • Create red blood cells
  • Create stress-related and sex hormones
  • Maintain a healthy digestive tract
  • Process other vitamins, particularly B2 (riboflavin)
  • Synthesize cholesterol

Vitamin B5, taken as a supplement, has also been found to help with lowering cholesterol. In a 2011 study published in the journal Nutrition Research, researchers at the Princeton Longevity Center in New Jersey found that supplements of pantethine, a derivative of vitamin B5, reduced total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol in subjects with low-to-moderate cardiovascular risk.

Another study at Asahikawa Medical College in Japan found that pantethine might be beneficial in the prevention of diabetic angiopathy. A study by the National Academy of Sciences of Grodno, Belarus also found that pantethine can be useful in the treatment of diabetes.

"Pantothenic acid is used in treating and preventing pantothenic acid deficiency and skin reactions from radiation therapy," Ross said. "Other health benefits of pantothenic acid that have been suggested but not scientifically proven include improve symptoms related to ADHD, arthritis, athletic performance, skin problems, alcoholism, allergies, hair loss, asthma, heart problems, carpal tunnel syndrome, lung disorders, nerve damage, colitis, eye infections, convulsions, kidney disorders, dandruff, depression, diabetic problems, immune function, headaches, hyperactivity, low blood pressure, insomnia, irritability, multiple sclerosis, muscular dystrophy, and muscle cramps."

RDA 5 mg      One serving of Spirulina 0.4 mg

https://www.livescience.com/51640-b5-pantothenic-acid.html

Vitamin B6

Vitamin B-6 (pyridoxine) is important for normal brain development and for keeping the nervous system and immune system healthy.

Food sources of vitamin B-6 include poultry, fish, potatoes, chickpeas and bananas. Vitamin B-6 can also be taken as a supplement, typically as an oral capsule, tablet or liquid.

People who have kidney disease or conditions that prevent the small intestine from absorbing nutrients from foods (malabsorption syndromes) are more likely to be vitamin B-6 deficient. Certain genetic diseases and some epilepsy medications also can lead to deficiency. This can cause a condition in which you don't have enough healthy red blood cells to carry adequate oxygen to your body's tissues (anemia), confusion, depression and a weakened immune system.

A vitamin B-6 deficiency is usually coupled with deficiency in other B vitamins, such as folate (vitamin B-9) and vitamin B-12.

RDA 1.3 mg   One serving of Spirulina .32 mg

https://www.mayoclinic.org/drugs-supplements-vitamin-b6/art-20363468

Vitamin B7 Biotin

Biotin is one of the B-vitamins, it was once called coenzyme R and vitamin H. The H stands for Haar und Haut, which is German for hair and skin.

Biotin is water-soluble, which means the body doesn't store it. It has many important functions in the body.

It's necessary for the function of several enzymes known as carboxylases. These biotin-containing enzymes participate in important metabolic pathways, such as the production of glucose and fatty acids.

A commonly recommended intake is 5 mcg (micrograms) per day in infants and 30 mcg in adults. This goes up to 35 mcg per day in breastfeeding women.

RDA 30 mcg  One serving of Spirulina 2 mcg

https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/318724.php

Vitamin B8 Inositol

Inositol, sometimes referred to as vitamin B8, naturally occurs in foods such as fruits, beans, grains and nuts

Your body can also produce inositol from the carbohydrates you eat.

However, research suggests that additional inositol in the form of supplements may have numerous health benefits. .

Though often referred to as vitamin B8, inositol is not a vitamin at all but rather a type of sugar with several important functions.

Inositol plays a structural role in your body as a major component of cell membranes

It also influences the action of insulin, a hormone essential for blood sugar control. In addition, it affects chemical messengers in your brain, such as serotonin and dopamine

It has been estimated that a typical diet in the US contains around 1 gram of inositol per day. Rich sources include grains, beans, nuts and fresh fruits and vegetables 

However, supplemental doses of inositol are often higher. Researchers have studied the benefits of doses up to 18 grams per day — with promising results and few side effects.

RDA up to 2 g           One serving of Spirulina 26 mg

https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/inositol#what-it-is


Vitamin B9

Folate (vitamin B9) is important in red blood cell formation and for healthy cell growth and function. The nutrient is crucial during early pregnancy to reduce the risk of birth defects of the brain and spine.

Folate is found mainly in dark green leafy vegetables, beans, peas and nuts. Fruits rich in folate include oranges, lemons, bananas, melons and strawberries. The synthetic form of folate is folic acid. It's in an essential component of prenatal vitamins and is in many fortified foods such as cereals and pastas.

A diet lacking foods rich in folate or folic acid can lead to a folate deficiency. Folate deficiency can also occur in people who have conditions, such as celiac disease, that prevent the small intestine from absorbing nutrients from foods (malabsorption syndromes).

RDA 400 mcg                        One serving of Spirulina 4 mcg

https://www.mayoclinic.org/drugs-supplements-folate/art-20364625