VITAMINS MINERALS ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS NON ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS PHYTO NUTRITENTS ESSENTIAL FATTY ACIDS

PHYTO NUTRITENTS


Phycocyanin

Phycocyanin isolated from marine and fresh water organisms and has the characteristics of high efficiency and low toxicity, and it can be used as a functional food. It has been reported that phycocyanin has anti-oxidative function, anti-inflammatory activity, anti-cancer function, immune enhancement function, liver and kidney protection pharmacological effects. Thus, phycocyanin has an important development and utilization as a potential drug, and phycocyanin has become a new hot spot in the field of drug research. So far, there are more and more studies have shown that phycocyanin has the anti-cancer effect, which can block the proliferation of cancer cells and kill cancer cells. Phycocyanin exerts anti-cancer activity by blocking tumor cell  cycle, inducing tumor cell apoptosis and autophagy, thereby phycocyanin can serve as a promising anti-cancer agent.

In the past few decades, natural products have become increasingly important for the application of chemical prevention and treatment for diseases 1. Natural products derived from food or food supplements could be used as drugs in the treatment for diseases, and their chemical prevention and chemotherapy effects have been fully studied. Recently, marine natural products with pharmacological activity have been shown to have potent anti-cancer activity, and have less or no toxic side effects 4. Thus, these natural products have an important development and utilization in recent years. In addition, marine natural products have become one of the most important resources of novel lead compounds for critical diseases. Phycocyanin (PC), a natural extract, has been studied for its anti-cancer effect on malignant solid tumors. In addition, phycocyanin is a toxin on cancer cells while it is non-toxic to normal cells.

Phycocyanin is a biologically active nutrient compound which is isolated and purified from a variety of seaweeds. Phycocyanin obtained from different species, such as Aphanizomenon sp., Spirulina sp., Phormidium sp. , Lyngbya sp., Synechocystis sp. and Synechococcus sp., has been separated and studied.

Phycocyanin belongs to the phycobiliprotein (PBP) family, which is characterized by a deep and intense blue color. According to the colored molecules, phycobiliproteins can be divided into three categories: phycoerythrin (PE, PE is red), phycocyanin (PC, PC is blue), and allophycocyanin (AP, AP is bluish green).

Phycocyanin is a kind of photosynthetic assistant protein which can efficiently capture light energy. Phycobiliprotein is one of the components of phycobilisome 15, which is a supramolecular protein complex that auxiliarily collects light energy. Phycobilisome plays an important role in photosynthesis energy absorption and transmission . Phycobiliprotein acts as an antenna molecule in algae photosynthesis, which can absorb light energy and can be capable of efficiently delivering light energy to a reaction center containing chlorophyll by a non-radioactive process .

One serving of Spirulina 5,600 mg
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5687155/ .

Chlorophyll

Chlorophyll is a green pigment found in plants. Plants use chlorophyll and light to make food. People use chlorophyll as medicine. Common sources of chlorophyll used for medicine include alfalfa, algae, and silkworm droppings.

Chlorophyll is used for bad breath and reducing colostomy odor. Chlorophyll is also used for constipation, "detoxification," and wound healing.

Healthcare providers use chlorophyll intravenously for removing skin cancer and for treating a pancreas problem called chronic relapsing pancreatitis.

Chlorophyll is applied to the skin for acne and for removing skin cancer and lesions from herpes infections.

One serving of Spirulina 400 mg
https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/322361.php

Total Carotenoids

Carotenoids are pigments in plants, algae, and photosynthetic bacteria. These pigments produce the bright yellow, red, and orange colors in plants, vegetables, and fruits.

Carotenoids act as a type of antioxidant for humans.

There are more than 600 different types of Carotenoids. Some can be converted into vitamin A when released into the body. A few of the most common carotenoids include:

Carotenoids must be consumed through the diet. They are best absorbed through a source of fat. Foods rich in Carotenoids include:

Carotenoids are fat-soluble compounds, meaning they are best absorbed with fat. Unlike some protein-rich foods and vegetables, cooking and chopping carotenoid-rich foods increase the strength of the nutrients when they enter the bloodstream.

Carotenoids are classified into two main groups: xanthophylls and carotenes.

Both types of carotenoids have antioxidant properties. In addition, some carotenoids can be converted into vitamin A, an essential component for human health and growth.

These provitamin A carotenoids include alpha carotene, beta carotene, and beta cryptoxanthin. Non-provitamin A carotenoids include lutein, zeaxanthin, and lycopene.

Adding more carotenoid-rich foods to your diet can strengthen your immune system and overall health.

While Carotenoids are available in vitamin A supplements, consuming them naturally enhances their antioxidant effects. In addition, supplements can be dangerous if they contain high levels of vitamin A, which can be toxic if you take to0 much

Antioxidants protect cells from free radicals, or substances that destroy or damage cell membranes. Increasing carotenoids via your diet can increase the amount of antioxidants and protective cells in your body. This is significant when battling cancer and may be able to prevent cancer growth.

Carotenoids have been associated with lowering cancer risk, specifically lung cancer. When you smoke cigarettes, you ingest harmful chemicals that destroy healthy cells. Though mixed in results, one study showed a small decrease in risk from lung cancer when incorporating carotenoids into your diet. It is even healthier to stop smoking and increase carotenoids in your diet to help your lungs heal as you move past the addiction.

Similarly, carotenoids have been associated with reducing the risk of skin cancer. Some carotenoids can break down into vitamin A, a nutrient that protects against premature skin damage from sun exposure. Both are risks for melanoma, premature wrinkles, and unhealthy skin.

One serving of Spirulina 148 mg
https://www.healthline.com/health/carotenoids#outlook

Gama Linolenic Acid

Gamma linolenic acid is a fatty substance. It's found in various plant seed oils such as borage oil and evening primrose oil. People use it as medicine.

People use gamma linolenic acid (GLA) for conditions such as arthritis, nerve damage due to diabetes, eczema, high blood pressure, and other conditions, but there is no good scientific evidence to support most of these uses.

Gamma linolenic acid is an omega-6 fatty acid. The body converts gamma linolenic acid to substances that reduce inflammation and cell growth.

Possibly Effective for:

  • Nerve damage due to diabetes (diabetic neuropathy). Taking gamma linolenic acid by mouth for 6-12 months seems to reduce symptoms and prevent nerve damage in people with nerve pain due to type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Gamma linolenic acid seems to work better in people with good blood sugar control.

One serving of Spirulina 540 mg
https://www.webmd.com/vitamins/ai/ingredientmono-805/gamma-linolenic-acid


Glycolipids

Glycolipids are lipids with a carbohydrate attached by a glycosidic (covalent) bond. Their role is to maintain the stability of the cell membrane and to facilitate cellular recognition, which is crucial to the immune response and in the connections that allow cells to connect to one another to form tissues. Glycolipids are found on the surface of all eukaryotic cell membranes, where they extend from the phospholipid bilayer into the extracellular environment.

Glycosyltransferases

Enzymes called glycosyltransferases link the saccharide to the lipid molecule, and also play a role in assembling the correct oligosaccharide so that the right receptor can be activated on the cell which responds to the presence of the glycolipid on the surface of the cell. The glycolipid is assembled in the Golgi apparatus and embedded in the surface of a vesicle which is then transported to the cell membrane. The vesicle merges with the cell membrane so that the glycolipid can be presented on the cell's outside surface.

Glycoside hydrolases

Glycoside hydrolases
catalyze the breakage of glycosidic bonds. They are used to modify the oligosaccharide structure of the glycan after it has been added onto the lipid. They can also remove glycans from glycolipids to turn them back into unmodified lipids.[5]


The main function of glycolipids in the body is to serve as recognition sites for cell–cell interactions. The saccharide of the glycolipid will bind to a specific complementary carbohydrate or to a lectin (carbohydrate-binding protein), of a neighboring cell. The interaction of these cell surface markers is the basis of cell recognitions, and initiates cellular responses that contribute to activities such as regulation, growth, and apoptosis.

An example of how glycolipids function within the body is the interaction between leukocytes and endothelial cells during inflammation. Selectins, a class of lectins found on the surface of leukocytes and endothelial cells bind to the carbohydrates attached to glycolipids to initiate the immune response. This binding causes leukocytes to leave circulation and congregate near the site of inflammation. This is the initial binding mechanism, which is followed by the expression of integrins which form stronger bonds and allow leukocytes to migrate toward the site of inflammation. Glycolipids are also responsible for other responses, notably the recognition of host cells by viruses.

Blood types
are an example of how glycolipids on cell membranes mediate cell interactions with the surrounding environment. The four main human blood types (A, B, AB, O) are determined by the oligosaccharide attached to a specific glycolipid on the surface of red blood cells, which acts as an antigen. The unmodified antigen, called the H antigen, is the characteristic of type O, and is present on red blood cells of all blood types. Blood type A has an N-acetylgalactosamine added as the main determining structure, type B has a galactose, and type AB has all three of these antigens. Antigens which are not present in an individual's blood will cause antibodies to be produced, which will bind to the foreign glycolipids. For this reason, people with blood type AB can receive transfusions from all blood types (the universal acceptor), and people with blood type O can act as donors to all blood types (the universal donor).

The sulfolipids/sulfatides are also members of the acylated trehalose family. Sulfolipids were originally isolated from M. tuberculosis by Middlebrook et al. (1959) and chemically defined by Goren and Brennan (1979). All of these are tri- or tetra-acylated trehalose-2-sulfate. The acyl functions of the sulfatides may be either palmitate, stearate, phthioceranate or hydroxyphthioceranate (Brennan, 1988) (Figure 9.3). These lipids were originally believed to inhibit phagosome–lysosome fusion (Goren et al., 1976), however, later evidence suggested that sulfatides inhibited phagosome activation (Pabst et al., 1988).

One serving of Spirulina  40 mg