VITAMINS MINERALS ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS NON ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS PHYTO NUTRITENTS ESSENTIAL FATTY ACIDS
Non Essential Amino Acids

Alanine
 
Alanine is a non-essential amino acid and it plays a crucial role as a building block of important proteins.

Mostly synthesized by the muscle cells from lactic acid it is considered the most important nutrient for the amino acid metabolism in the blood together with L-Glutamine. Once synthesized, the liver absorbs alanine and converts it into pyruvate. This compound is critical for the production of glucose and  hence blood sugar management.

L-alanine supplements are therefore often useful in cases of hypoglycaemia to prevent low blood sugar or insulin shocks. They enable rapid energy delivery by stimulating the immediate release of glucose into the blood stream.

Other important functions of this amino acid are the support of the immune system and prevention of kidney stones. Alanine supplements can also be useful in supporting an intensive training regime and achieving effective muscle growth.

One serving of Spirulina 1,880  mg

Arginine
 
There are plenty of powerful new drugs to help prevent and treat chronic health problems. But we also know that certain nutrients may help, as well. Take arginine, for example. Arginine has gotten lots of attention lately for its potential heart benefits. That's important because, today, about 85.6 million Americans have some form of cardiovascular disease.

Deficiencies of arginine are rare. It's abundant in many different types of foods, and your body can also make it. Arginine-rich foods include red meat, fish, poultry, wheat germ, grains, nuts and seeds, and dairy products. But what does arginine do for the heart, and are there potential side effects?

Arginine, also known as L-arginine, is involved in a number of different functions in the body.

They include:
  • Wound healing
  • Helping the kidneys remove waste products from the body
  • Maintaining immune and hormone function
  • Dilates and relaxes the arteries
As a natural dietary supplement, arginine has garnered particular attention for its possible heart benefits.

Since arginine may help arteries relax and improve blood flow, it may also help with erectile dysfunction.

There are other potential health benefits with arginine, such as possible reduction of blood pressure in some people and improved walking distance in patients with intermittent leg cramping and weakness known as intermittent claudication. However, the scientific studies are not conclusive enough for experts to make any firm recommendations.

There is no recommended daily amount established for arginine, because the human body normally makes enough.

If taken as a supplement, higher doses of arginine are often needed, and up to 1200 mg per day have been shown to be helpful. Before taking it, discuss the risks and benefits with your doctor.

RDA  see above        One serving of Spirulina 1,720  mg
https://www.webmd.com/heart/arginine-heart-benefits-and-side-effects#1

Aspartic Acid
 
Aspartic acid is a type of amino acid. Amino acids are typically used as building blocks to make protein in the body. One type of aspartic acid, called D-aspartic acid, is not used to make protein but is used in other body functions.

Aspartic acid is commonly used to reduce feelings of tiredness, improve athletic performance, and increase the size and strength of muscles. But there is limited scientific research to support these uses.

There isn't enough information to know how L-aspartic acid works. D-aspartic acid might increase or decrease levels of the chemical testosterone in the body.

One serving of Spirulina 2,440  mg
https://www.webmd.com/vitamins/ai/ingredientmono-12/aspartic-acid

Cystine
 
Cysteine is a nonessential amino acid (protein building block), meaning that cysteine can be made in the human body. Cysteine is one of the few amino acids that contains sulfur . This allows cysteine to bond in a special way and maintain the structure of proteins in the body. Cysteine is a component of the antioxidant glutathione. The body also uses cysteine to produce taurine, another amino acid.

Most people do not need to supplement with cysteine. Almost nothing is known about appropriate supplemental levels, in part because almost all clinical research has been done with N-acetyl cysteine and not cysteine itself.

The body can synthesize cysteine from methionine and other building blocks. Cysteine, the amino acid from which NAC is derived, is found in most high-protein foods.

RDA  see above        One serving of Spirulina 240  mg
https://wa.kaiserpermanente.org/kbase/topic.jhtml?docId=hn-2835000#hn-2835000-how-it-works

Glutamic Acid
 
Glutamic acid, is an important amino acid for the synthesis of proteins. The salts and carboxylate anions associated with glutamic acid are referred to as glutamates.

This amino acid contributes to the health of the immune and digestive systems, as well as energy production. Muscle tissues are an important site for storing and producing this amino acid. Each day the muscles release approximately 80g of glutamic acid into the circulation to be used throughout the body.

Glutamic acid is in the same amino acid family group as glutamine and they can alter their structure to transform into each other. Glutamine is required by the muscles more than any other amino acid, and the muscles rapidly use glutamine during exercise. Therefore body builders and other athletes that rely on muscle mass, endurance and strength have a higher demand for glutamine. Consequently, having an adequate supply of glutamine/glutamic acid is important to support a healthy, active body.

One of its major roles is as an excitatory neurotransmitter within the central nervous system. It is the most common neurotransmitter present in the spinal cord and brain. As a neurotransmitter, this amino acid influences several areas of the brain including the thalamus, brain stem, spinal cord, basal ganglia and pons.

Before glutamic acid can act as a neurotransmitter, it needs to attach to specific receptors in the central nervous system. One of these receptors is the NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptor. Here, it regulates the number of calcium, sodium and magnesium ions that can enter and exit the cells.

In addition to being a neurotransmitter in its own right, glutamic acid is also important in the synthesis of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). An inhibitory neurotransmitter, GABA has the opposite effect of glutamic acid and decreases activity within the central nervous system. Due to glutamic acid’s influence on other neurotransmitters, it has an integral role in a number of neuropsychological conditions.
One serving of Spirulina 3,640  mg

Glycine
 
Glycine is an amino acid, a building block for protein. It is not considered an "essential amino acid" because the body can make it from other chemicals. A typical diet contains about 2 grams of glycine daily. The primary sources are protein-rich foods including meat, fish, dairy, and legumes.

Glycine is used for treating schizophrenia, stroke, sleep problems, cystic fibrosis, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), metabolic syndrome, and some rare inherited metabolic disorders. It is also used to protect kidneys from the harmful side effects of certain drugs used after organ transplantation as well as the liver from harmful effects of alcohol. Glycine may also be used to reduce the risk of psychosis. Other uses include cancer prevention and memory enhancement.

Some people apply glycine directly to the skin to treat leg ulcers and heal other wounds.

How does it work?

The body uses glycine to make proteins. Glycine is also involved in the transmission of chemical signals in the brain, so there is interest in trying it for schizophrenia and improving memory. Some researchers think glycine may have a role in cancer prevention because it seems to interfere with the blood supply needed by certain tumors.

One serving of Spirulina 1,280  mg
https://www.verywellhealth.com/glycine-overview-4583816

Histidine

Histidine is an amino acid. Amino acids are the building blocks of protein in our bodies. People use histidine as medicine.

Histidine is used for rheumatoid arthritis, allergic diseases, ulcers, and anemia caused by kidney failure or kidney dialysis.

Histidine is involved in a wide range of metabolic processes in the body.

One serving of Spirulina 400   mg
https://www.webmd.com/vitamins/ai/ingredientmono-467/histidine

Proline
 
Proline is a cyclic, nonessential amino acid (actually, an imino acid) in humans (synthesized from glutamic acid and other amino acids), Proline is a constituent of many proteins. Found in high concentrations in collagen, proline constitutes almost a third of the residues. Collagen is the main supportive protein of skin, tendons, bones, and connective tissue and promotes their health and healing. (NCI04)

It is an essential component of collagen and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons. It also helps maintain and strengthen heart muscles.

L-Proline is one of the twenty amino acids used in living organisms as the building blocks of proteins. Proline is a non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from glutamic acid.

One serving of Spirulina 1,080   mg
https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/L-Proline

Serine
 
L-serine is an amino acid essential for the synthesis of phosphatidylserine, which is a component of the membrane of brain cells (i.e., neurons). It can be produced in the body, including the brain, but an external supply from the diet is essential in maintaining necessary levels. Although preclinical studies suggest L-serine may inhibit inflammation in the brain, levels of L-serine in humans do not appear to be associated with dementia or cognitive decline. Because L-serine is a naturally occurring amino acid, supplementation is likely safe in moderation.

No clinical studies have tested whether L-serine can improve cognitive functions or prevent age-related cognitive decline. Studies examining levels of L-serine have not reported any correlations with cognitive function.
L-serine is essential for the synthesis of lipids called phosphatidylserine that make up the cell membrane of neurons. It is also essential for growth of neuronal processes. However, it is not clear whether L-serine supplements directly increase L-serine levels in the brain. In a study on traumatic brain injury in small mammals, L-serine treatment helped to protect brain tissue and improve recovery of neurological functions by inhibiting inflammation . Such protective effects have not been confirmed in humans yet.

One serving of Spirulina 1,280 mg
https://www.alzdiscovery.org/cognitive-vitality/ratings/l-serine

Tyrosine
 
Tyrosine is an amino acid that is naturally produced in the body from another amino acid called phenylalanine.

It’s found in many foods, especially in cheese, where it was first discovered. In fact, “tyros” means “cheese” in Greek (2Trusted Source).

It is also found in chicken, turkey, fish, dairy products and most other high-protein foods (3Trusted Source).

Tyrosine helps make several important substances, including:
  • Dopamine: Dopamine regulates your reward and pleasure centers. This important brain chemical is also important for memory and motor skills (5Trusted Source).
  • Adrenaline and noradrenaline: These hormones are responsible for the fight-or-flight response to stressful situations. They prepare the body to “fight” or “flee” from a perceived attack or harm (5Trusted Source).
  • Thyroid hormones: Thyroid hormones are produced by the thyroid gland and primarily responsible for regulating metabolism (6Trusted Source).
  • Melanin: This pigment gives your skin, hair and eyes their color. Dark-skinned people have more melanin in their skin than light-skinned people (7Trusted Source).

Supplementing with tyrosine is thought to increase levels of the neurotransmitters dopamine, adrenaline and norepinephrine.

By increasing these neurotransmitters, it may help improve memory and performance in stressful situations.

Supplementing with tyrosine has been shown to benefit those who are sleep deprived. A single dose of it helped people who lost a night’s sleep stay alert for three hours longer than they otherwise would (14Trusted Source).

One serving of Spirulina 1,200 mg
https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/tyrosine#section1