VITAMINS MINERALS ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS NON ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS PHYTO NUTRITENTS ESSENTIAL FATTY ACIDS
Minerials

Calcium
 
Calcium, the most abundant mineral in the body, is found in some foods, added to others, available as a dietary supplement, and present in some medicines (such as antacids). Calcium is required for vascular contraction and vasodilation, muscle function, nerve transmission, intracellular signaling and hormonal secretion, though less than 1% of total body calcium is needed to support these critical metabolic functions  Serum calcium is very tightly regulated and does not fluctuate with changes in dietary intakes; the body uses bone tissue as a reservoir for, and source of calcium, to maintain constant concentrations of calcium in blood, muscle, and intercellular fluids.
The remaining 99% of the body’s calcium supply is stored in the bones and teeth where it supports their structure and function. Bone itself undergoes continuous remodeling, with constant resorption and deposition of calcium into new bone. The balance between bone resorption and deposition changes with age. Bone formation exceeds resorption in periods of growth in children and adolescents, whereas in early and middle adulthood both processes are relatively equal. In aging adults, particularly among postmenopausal women, bone breakdown exceeds formation, resulting in bone loss that increases the risk of osteoporosis over time.

RDA up to 1000 mg        One serving of Spirulina 280 mg
https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Calcium-HealthProfessional/

Iron
 
Iron is a mineral vital to the proper function of hemoglobin, a protein needed to transport oxygen in the blood. Iron also has a role in a variety of other important processes in the body.
A shortage of iron in the blood can lead to a range of serious health problems, including iron deficiency anemia. Around 10 million people in the United States have low iron levels, and roughly 5 million of these have been diagnosed with iron deficiency anemia.

Fast facts on iron
  • The Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) varies between ages, but women who are pregnant require the most.
  • Iron promotes healthy pregnancy, increased energy, and better athletic performance. Iron deficiency is most common in female athletes.
  • Canned clams, fortified cereals, and white beans are the best sources of dietary iron.
  • Too much iron can increase the risk of liver cancer and diabetes.
Recommended intake

Iron is best sourced from foods, and the recommended daily allowance varies.
The Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) for elemental iron depends on a person's age and sex. Vegetarians also have different iron requirements.

Infants:
  • 0 to 6 months: 0.27 milligrams (mg)
  • 7 to 12 months: 11 mg
Children:
  • 1 to 3 years: 7 mg
  • 4 to 8 years: 10 mg
Males:
  • 9 to 13 years: 8 mg
  • 14 to 18 years: 11 mg
  • 19 years and older: 8 mg
Females:
  • 9 to 13 years: 8 mg
  • 14 to 18 years: 15 mg
  • 19 to 50 years: 18 mg
  • 51 years and older: 8 mg
  • During pregnancy: 27 mg
  • When lactating between 14 and 18 years of age: 10 mg
  • When lactating at older than 19 years: 9 mg
Iron supplements can be helpful when people find it difficult to take in enough iron through only dietary measures, such as in a plant-based diet. It is better to try to consume enough in the diet alone by removing or reducing factors that may hinder iron absorption and consuming iron-rich foods.

This is because many iron-rich foods also contain a range of other beneficial nutrients that work together to support overall health.
Iron helps to preserve many vital functions in the body, including general energy and focus, gastrointestinal processes, the immune system, and the regulation of body temperature.
The benefits of iron often go unnoticed until a person is not getting enough. Iron deficiency anemia can cause fatigue, heart palpitations, pale skin, and breathlessness.

RDA see above        One serving of Spirulina 40 mg
https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/287228.php
 
Phosphorous
 
Phosphorus is the second most plentiful mineral in your body. The first is calcium. Your body needs phosphorus for many functions, such as filtering waste and repairing tissue and cells.
Most people get the amount of phosphorus that they need through their daily diets. In fact, it’s more common to have too much phosphorus in your body than too little. Kidney disease or eating too much phosphorus and not enough calcium can lead to an excess of phosphorous.

However, certain health conditions (such as diabetes and alcoholism) or medications (such as some antacids) can cause phosphorus levels in your body to drop too low.
Phosphorus levels that are too high or too low can cause medical complications, such as heart disease, joint pain, or fatigue.

You need phosphorus to keep your bones strong and healthy, to help make energy, and to move your muscles.

In addition, phosphorus helps to:
  • build strong bones and teeth
  • filter out waste in your kidneys
  • manage how your body stores and uses energy
  • grow, maintain, and repair tissue and cells
  • produce DNA and RNA — the body’s genetic building blocks
  • balance and use vitamins such as vitamins B and D, as well as other minerals like iodine, magnesium, and zinc
  • assist in muscle contraction
  • maintain a regular heartbeat
  • facilitate nerve conduction
  • reduce muscle pain after exercise
Most foods contain phosphorus. Foods that are rich in protein are also excellent sources of phosphorus.

These include:
  • meat and poultry
  • fish
  • milk and other dairy products
  • eggs
  • nuts and seeds
  • beans
When your diet contains enough calcium and protein, you’ll likely have enough phosphorus. That’s because many of the foods that are high in calcium are also high in phosphorous.

Some non-protein food sources also contain phosphorus.

For example:
  • whole grains
  • potatoes
  • garlic
  • dried fruit
  • carbonated drinks (phosphoric acid is used to produce the carbonation)
Whole grain versions of bread and cereal contain more phosphorus than those made from white flour. However, humans can’t absorb phosphorus in whole grain foods.
The amount of phosphorus you need in your diet depends on your age.
Adults need less phosphorus than children between the ages of 9 to 18, but more than children under 8 years old.

The Linus Pauling Institute recommends the following daily intake:
  • adults (19 years and older): 700 mg
  • children (9 to 18 years): 1,250 mg
  • children (4 to 8 years): 500 mg
  • children (1 to 3 years): 460 mg
  • infants (7 to 12 months): 275 mg
  • infants (0 to 6 months): 100 mg
Few people need to take phosphorus supplements. Most people can get the necessary amount of phosphorus through the foods they eat.

RDA see above        One serving of Spirulina 320 mg
https://www.healthline.com/health/phosphorus-in-diet

Magnesium
 
Magnesium plays a role in over 300 enzymatic reactions within the body, including the metabolism of food, synthesis of fatty acids and proteins, and the transmission of nerve impulses.
The human body contains around 25 gram (g) of magnesium, 50 to 60 percent of which is stored in the skeletal system. The rest is present in muscle, soft tissues, and bodily fluids.

Fast facts on magnesium

Here are some key points about magnesium.
  • Magnesium is vital for the proper functioning of hundreds of enzymes.
  • Consuming adequate magnesium might help reduce premenstrual symptoms.
  • Sunflower seeds, almonds, and shrimp are some of the foods high in magnesium.
  • Magnesium supplements can interact with different drugs, so it is best to check with a doctor before taking them.
  • Spinach is a good source of magnesium.
  • Magnesium is one of seven essential macrominerals.
These are minerals that need to be consumed in relatively large amounts, at least 100 milligrams (mg) per day.

An adequate intake can help prevent problems with bones, the cardiovascular system, diabetes, and other functions.

The daily Recommended Dietary Allowances for elemental magnesium are:
  • 19-30 years, 400 mg (men) and 310 mg (women)
  • 31 years and older, 420 mg (men) and 320 mg (women)
  • For pregnant women age 14-18 years, the RDA is 400 mg; 19-30 years, 350 mg; 31-50 years, 360 mg.

RDA see above        One serving of Spirulina 160 mg
https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/286839.php

Zinc
 
Zinc is an essential mineral that is naturally present in some foods, added to others, and available as a dietary supplement. Zinc is also found in many cold lozenges and some over-the-counter drugs sold as cold remedies.

Zinc is involved in numerous aspects of cellular metabolism. It is required for the catalytic activity of approximately 100 enzymes and it plays a role in immune function, protein synthesis, wound healing, DNA synthesis, and cell division. Zinc also supports normal growth and development during pregnancy, childhood, and adolescence and is required for proper sense of taste and smell. A daily intake of zinc is required to maintain a steady state because the body has no specialized zinc storage system.

Table 1: Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) for Zinc
Age Male Female Pregnancy Lactation
0-6 months 2 mg* 2 mg*
7-12 months 3 mg 3 mg
1-3 years 3 mg 3 mg
4-8 years 5 mg 5 mg
9-13 years 8 mg 8 mg
14-18 years 11 mg 9 mg 12 mg 13 mg
19+ years 11 mg 8 mg 11 mg 12 mg

* Adequate Intake (AI)

RDA see above        One serving of Spirulina 1200 mcg
https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Zinc-HealthProfessional/
 
Selenium
 
Selenium is an essential trace mineral that is important for many bodily processes, including cognitive function, a healthy immune system, and fertility in both men and women.

It contributes to thyroid hormone metabolism and DNA synthesis, and it helps protect against oxidative damage and infection, according to the United States Office of Dietary Supplements.

It is present in human tissue, mostly in skeletal muscle.

Dietary sources are varied. They include Brazil nuts, seafood, and meats.

The amount of selenium in food often depends on the selenium concentration of the soil and water where farmers grew or raised the food.
  • Selenium is a mineral that plays a role in many bodily functions.
  • It may protect against cancer, thyroid problems, cognitive decline, and asthma, but more research is needed.
  • Brazil nuts, some fish, brown rice, and eggs are good sources.
  • The best source of nutrients is food. Any supplement use should first be discussed with a doctor.
The recommended dietary allowance (includes the total amount of selenium you should get from foods and from any supplements you take. Most people can get their RDA of selenium from food. ... The safe upper limit for selenium is 400 micrograms a day in adults. Anything above that is considered an overdose.

RDA see above        One serving of Spirulina 40 mcg
https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/287842.php

Copper
 
Copper is an essential trace mineral necessary for survival. It is found in all body tissues and plays a role in making red blood cells and maintaining nerve cells and the immune system.

It also helps the body form collagen and absorb iron, and plays a role in energy production.

Most copper in the body is found in the liver, brain, heart, kidneys, and skeletal muscle.

Both too much and too little copper can affect how the brain works. Impairments have been linked to Menkes, Wilson's, and Alzheimer's disease

Deficiency is rare, but it can lead to cardiovascular disease and other problems.

Fast facts about copper:
  • Copper is necessary for a range of bodily functions.
  • Copper deficiency is rare except in specific conditions, such as Menkes disease.
  • Copper supplements are not usually necessary and may lead to an imbalance.
  • A copper imbalance has been linked to Alzheimer's disease.
  • Anyone who is considering copper supplements should first speak to a doctor.
The Recommended Dietary Allowance for adult men and women is 900 µg/day. The median intake of copper from food in the United States is approximately 1.0 to 1.6 mg/day for adult men and women.

RDA see above        One serving of Spirulina 480 mcg
https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/288165.php

Manganese
 
Manganese is a trace mineral, which your body needs in small amounts.

It’s required for the normal functioning of your brain, nervous system and many of your body’s enzyme systems.

While your body stores up to about 20 mg of manganese in your kidneys, liver, pancreas and bones, you also need to get it from your diet.

Manganese is considered an essential nutrient and can be found especially in seeds and whole grains, as well as in smaller amounts in legumes, beans, nuts, leafy green vegetables and tea.

General: No recommended dietary allowances  for manganese have been established.

The daily ULs for manganese for children are: children 1 to 3 years, 2 mg; 4 to 8 years, 3 mg; 9 to 13 years, 6 mg; and 14 to 18 years (including pregnant and breastfeeding women), 9 mg.

RDA see above        One serving of Spirulina 2000 mcg
https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/manganese-benefits

Chromium
 
Chromium is a mineral that humans require in trace amounts, although its mechanisms of action in the body and the amounts needed for optimal health are not well defined. It is found primarily in two forms: 1) trivalent (chromium 3+), which is biologically active and found in food, and 2) hexavalent (chromium 6+), a toxic form that results from industrial pollution.

Chromium is known to enhance the action of insulin, a hormone critical to the metabolism and storage of carbohydrate, fat, and protein in the body. In 1957, a compound in brewers’ yeast was found to prevent an age-related decline in the ability of rats to maintain normal levels of sugar (glucose) in their blood. Chromium was identified as the active ingredient in this so-called “glucose tolerance factor” in 1959.

Chromium also appears to be directly involved in carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism, but more research is needed to determine the full range of its roles in the body.

Table 2: Adequate Intakes (AIs) for chromium

Age Infants and children
(mcg/day)
Male
(mcg/day)
Female
(mcg/day)
Pregnancy
(mcg/day)
Lactation
(mcg/day)
0 to 6 months 0.2
7 to 12 months 5.5
1 to 3 years 11
4 to 8 years 15
9 to 13 years 25 21
14 to 18 years 35 24 29 44
19 to 50 years 35 25 30 45
>50 years 30 20

mcg = micrograms

RDA see above        One serving of Spirulina 100 mcg
https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Chromium-HealthProfessional/ 

Sodium
 
Sodium is an element that the body needs to work properly. Salt contains sodium. The body uses sodium to control blood pressure and blood volume. Your body also needs sodium for your muscles and nerves to work properly.
Sodium occurs naturally in most foods. The most common form of sodium is sodium chloride, which is table salt. Milk, beets, and celery also naturally contain sodium. Drinking water also contains sodium, but the amount depends on the source.

Sodium is also added to many food products. Some of these added forms are monosodium glutamate (MSG), sodium nitrite, sodium saccharin, baking soda (sodium bicarbonate), and sodium benzoate. These are in items such as Worcestershire sauce, soy sauce, onion salt, garlic salt, and bouillon cubes.

Processed meats like bacon, sausage, and ham, and canned soups and vegetables also contain added sodium. Fast foods are generally very high in sodium.

Too much sodium in the diet may lead to:
  • High blood pressure in some people
  • A serious buildup of fluid in people with heart failure, cirrhosis of the liver, or kidney disease
Sodium in the diet (called dietary sodium) is measured in milligrams (mg). Table salt is 40% sodium. One teaspoon (5 milliliters) of table salt contains 2,300 mg of sodium.

Healthy adults should limit sodium intake to 2,300 mg per day. Adults with high blood pressure should have no more than 1,500 mg per day. Those with congestive heart failure, liver cirrhosis, and kidney disease may need much lower amounts.

There are no specific sodium restrictions for infants, children, and teens, however a certain levels of daily adequate intake for healthy growth have been established.

These include:
  • Infants younger than 6 months: 120 mg
  • Infants age 6 to 12 months: 370 mg
  • Children ages 1 to 3 years: 1,000 mg
  • Children ages 4 to 8 years: 1,200 mg
  • Children and teens ages 9 to 18 years: 1,500 mg
Eating habits and attitudes about food that are formed during childhood are likely to influence eating habits for life. For this reason, it is a good idea for children to avoid consuming too much sodium.

RDA see above        One serving of Spirulina 360 mg
https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002415.htm

Potassium
 
Potassium is one of the seven essential macrominerals. The human body requires at least 100 milligrams of potassium daily to support key processes.

A high potassium intake reduces the risk of overall mortality by 20 percent. It also decreases the risk of stroke, lowers blood pressure, protects against loss of muscle mass, preserves bone mineral density, and reduces the formation of kidney stones.

The primary functions of potassium in the body include regulating fluid balance and controlling the electrical activity of the heart and other muscles

Fast facts on potassium:
  • Adults should be consuming 4,700 milligrams (mg) of potassium a day. However, fewer than two percent of people in the U.S. consume enough potassium.
  • Potassium supports blood pressure, cardiovascular health, bone strength, and muscle strength.
  • Beet greens, white beans, soy beans, and lima beans are the foods highest in potassium.
  • Potassium deficiency can lead to fatigue, weakness, and constipation. It can escalate to paralysis, respiratory failure, and painful gut obstructions.
  • Hyperkalemia means that there is too much potassium in the blood, and this can also impact health.
  • Potassium is available in supplements, but dietary sources are most healthful.
The Adequate Intake recommendation for potassium is 4,700 milligrams (mg) per day for adults. Most adults do not meet this recommendation.

The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) also reported that less than two percent of people in the U.S. meet the daily 4,700-mg potassium requirement. Women consume less potassium than men on average.

The World Health Organization (WHO) recommend an intake of 3,510 mg per day and agree that most of the global population is not meeting this recommendation.

Potassium supplements are available. However, it is best to obtain any vitamin or mineral through food. It is not individual vitamins or minerals that make certain foods important for healthful living, but the combined efforts of a range of nutrients.

RDA see above        One serving of Spirulina 560 mg
https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/287212.php